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How to plant a watermelon that is good and right


1. A BRIEF HISTORY

 Watermelon is a fruit plant in the form of herbs that grow vines which in English is called Water Mellon.  Originating from dry tropical and subtropical Africa, then growing rapidly to various countries such as: South Africa, China, Japan, and Indonesia.  Watermelon belongs to the pumpkin family (Cucurbitaceae) in its native area, which is very popular with humans/animals on the continent, because it contains a lot of water, so it spreads quickly.

 2. TYPE OF PLANT

 There are dozens of varieties/types of watermelon that are cultivated, but only a few types are of interest to farmers/consumers.

 In Indonesia, the varieties suitable for cultivation are divided into 2 groups, namely: Local Watermelon (Black Watermelon from Pasuruan, Batu Sengkaling Watermelon and Bojonegoro Watermelon) and Imported Hybrid Watermelon (from hybrid crosses) which have their own advantages.  Watermelon is classified according to the pure seed of the country of origin: Yamato seed, Sugar Suika, Cream Suika and others.

 3. BENEFITS OF PLANT

 Watermelon plants are cultivated to be used as fresh fruit, but some use the leaves and young watermelons for vegetables.  Watermelon is cultivated for its seeds, which have a fresh aroma and taste, the seeds are processed into a snack called "kuwaci" (popularly preferred as a snack).  Watermelon rind is also made pickled / pickled like cucumbers or other types of pumpkins.

 4. PLANTING CENTER

 Watermelon is widely cultivated in countries such as China, Japan, India and surrounding countries.  The planting centers in Indonesia are in Central Java (D.I. Yogyakarta, Magelang Regency and Kulonprogo Regency);  in West Java (Indramayu, Karawang);  in East Java (Banyuwangi, Malang);  and in Lampung, with an average production of 30 tons/ha/year.

 5. GROWTH CONDITIONS

 5.1.  Climate

 1) Theoretically the ideal rainfall for watermelon planting areas is 40-50 mm/month.

 2) The entire watermelon planting area needs sunlight from sunrise to sunset.  Lack of sunlight causes a decline in harvest time.

 3) Watermelon plants will be able to grow and bear fruit optimally at a temperature of ± 25 degrees C (during the day).

 4) The ideal air temperature for watermelon plant growth is an average daily temperature that ranges from 20-30 mm.

 5) Air humidity tends to be low when the sun shines on the planting area, meaning dry air that is poor in moisture.

 Such conditions are suitable for the growth of watermelon plants, because in the area of ​​origin, watermelon plants live in a dry desert environment.  Conversely, humidity that is too high will encourage the growth of plant-destroying fungtion.


 5.2.  Growing media

 1) The soil conditions suitable for watermelon plants are moderately loose soil, rich in organic matter, not acidic soil and garden/paddy field soil that has been drained.

 2) The required soil acidity (pH) is between 6-6.7.  If the pH is < 5.5 (acidic soil) then liming is carried out with a dose adjusted to the acidity of the soil.

 3) Soil that is suitable for watermelon plants is porous soil (nest) so it is easy to remove excess water, but soil that is too easy to drain water is not good for planting watermelons.  5.3.

 Altitude Place The ideal altitude for watermelon planting area is: 100-300 m above sea level.  In fact, watermelon can be planted in areas near the coast which have an altitude below 100 m above sea level and on hills with an altitude of more than 300 m above sea level.


 6. CULTIVATION GUIDELINES

 6.1.  Nursery

 1) Seed Requirements

 The selection of the types of watermelon seeds to be planted are: Imported hybrids, especially triploid seeds (non-seeds) which have very hard seed coats and haploid types (seeds).

 2) Seed Preparation

 Types of imported hybrid seeds, especially triploid seeds, after being selected, a tool is prepared to cut/stretch a little because without stretching the seeds are difficult to germinate, the tool is in the form of nail clippers which have a long triangular shape with small size and a small place with a wide surface is provided.  Haploid species are easy to sow because the seeds are not hard so they are easy to divide when germinating.

 3) Seed Seed Technique

 The watermelon seed seeding technique is carried out through several stages, namely:

 a) Stretching the seeds of watermelon seeds first in order to facilitate the growth process;

 b) Soaking the seeds in a unit of medicine mixed with the following ingredients: 1 liter of warm water at a temperature of 20-25 degrees C;  1 teaspoon of hormones (Atornik, Menedael, Abitonic);  1 tablespoon of fungicide (anti-fungal medication)

 such as: Difoldhan 4T, Dacosnil 75 WP, Benlate;  0.5 teaspoon bactericidal squeeze (Agrept 25 WP).  After soaking for 10-30 minutes, remove and drain until the water no longer flows and the seeds are ready to be germinated.

 4) Nursery/seeding maintenance

 Nursery bags are placed in a row so that they are exposed to full sun from sunrise to sunset.  Covered with transparent plastic protection similar to a mini greenhouse and open at one end with exposed edges.

 Fertilization is done through the leaves to stimulate the development of seedlings mixed with medicine, done regularly every 3 days.  At the age of 14 days, the seeds are transferred to a field that is ripe and ready to be planted.

5) Seed Transfer

 After germination, seedlings were seeded using plastic bags measuring: 12 cm x (0.2 - 0.3) mm.  One bag is planted with one seed (corner of the bag is cut sufficiently to reduce residual water) and filled with soil mixture with organic fertilizer composition:

 1 part garden soil, 1 part compost/humus, 1 part mature manure.  After the seedlings are 12-14 days old and have 2-3 leaves, they are transferred to the planting area that has been processed.


 6.2.  Planting Media Processing

 1) Preparation

 If the former garden area, it needs to be cleaned of previous plants that are still growing.  If the former rice fields, dried for a few days until the soil is easy to hoe, then examined the pH of the soil.

 2) Land Clearing

 The planted land is turned over to destroy the soil into even lumps.  The former stem stump/root tissue of the previous plant is removed from the area, and also all types of rock that are present are removed, so as not to affect the development of watermelon plants to be planted in the area.

 3) Formation of Beds

 Watermelon plants need beds so that the water contained in the soil can easily flow out through the drainage channels made.

 The number of beds depends on the number of rows desired by the grower (the form of double row beds, transverse beds in the planting area).  The width of the beds is 7-8 meters, depending on the thickness and height of the beds (minimum bed height is 20 cm).

 4) Liming

 This is done by giving a type of agricultural lime which contains elements of Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) which neutralize soil acidity and neutralize toxins from metal ions contained in the soil.  With Carbonate Lime/Dolomite Lime.  The use of lime per 1000 m2 at a soil pH of 4-5 requires 150-200 kg of dolomite, for between pH 5-6 it takes 75-150 kg of dolomite and pH>6 requires 50 kg of dolomite.

 5) Fertilization

 The fertilizers used are organic fertilizers and artificial fertilizers.  The manure used is manure derived from cattle/buffalo and selected manure that is ripe.  Manure is useful to help restore infertile soil conditions, with a dose of 2 kg/bed.

 The trick, sprinkled around the rows of beds evenly.  The fertilizer consists of:

 (a) Macro Fertilizer consisting of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Calcium (made from ZA, TSP and KCl fertilizers);

 (b) Micro Fertilizer consisting of Calcium (Ca) Magnesium (Mg) Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Sulfur (S), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) Boron (Bo) and Molybdenum (Mo).

 These fertilizers are sold under several brands such as Mikroflex, Microsil etc.  Its use, mixed with 1% anti-pest drug stem borer.

 6) Others

 The stage of smoothing and leveling the lumps of soil on the side of the bed at the watermelon planting site is done with a hoe.  In the middle, as a basis for fruit on the bed, it is leveled and above this layer is given dry straw for propagation of watermelons and laying of fruit.  The beds need to be weeded, watered and covered with dry straw 2-3 cm thick and plastic mulch with a plastic width of 110-150 cm to prevent water evaporation and the growth of wild plants.

 The use of plastic is more profitable because it is more durable, up to 8-12 months in open areas (2 - 3 times the planting period).  Silver plastic waste that reflects sunlight and indirectly helps plants get a lot of sunlight for growth.


 6.3.  Planting Technique

 1) Determination of Crop Pattern

 Watermelon is an annual plant with a monoculture cropping pattern.

 2) Hole Making

 Plants Planting watermelon seeds in the field, after the nursery is 14 days old and has grown leaves ± 2-3 pieces.

 While waiting for the seeds to be large enough, holes are made in the land with a depth of 8-10 cm.  Preparation of planting holes is carried out 1 week before the seeds are transferred to land.  It is 20-30 cm from the edge of the bed with the distance between the holes about 80-100 cm / depending on the thickness of the bed.  The land is covered with plastic mulch, so tools are needed from used paint cans measuring 1 kg which are given holes adjusted to the soil conditions of the beds with holes.

 3) Planting Way

 After the holes are made, the planting area is watered en masse so that the soil is ready to accept planting seeds until it inundates the area about sekitar of the height of the bed, and is left until the water is absorbed.  Before planting the seedling stems, soaking is done, so that it is easy to release the seeds using the existing plastic bags.

 The immunization step is carried out by soaking for 5-10 minutes accompanied by a mixture of drug solutions.  The composition of the drug consists of:

 1 teaspoon atonic hormone, abitonic, dekamon, menedael, 1 teaspoon flour bactericidal press, 1 teaspoon powder fungicide press (Berlate, dithane M-45, Daconiel).

 The order of planting is as follows:

 a) The plastic bag is taken carefully so that the roots are not damaged.

 b) Plant it with soil in the pocket position and insert it into the prepared hole

 c) The gaps in the holes are covered with prepared soil

 d) The remaining plant holes are covered with soil and watered with a little water so that the seed media blends with the surrounding soil and can unite without remaining.


 6.4.  Plant Maintenance

 1) Thin and Embroidery

 Watermelon plants that are 3-5 days old need to be considered, if they grow too thick / dead plants, replant / replace them with new seeds that have been prepared from spare seeds.  Thinning is done if the plant is too dense by trimming the leaves and stems that are not needed, because they block the sunlight that helps plant growth.

 2) Weeding

 Watermelon plants only have two fruits, with primary branch arrangements that tend to be many.  Maintain 2-3 branches without cutting secondary twigs.  Need weeding on branches that are not useful, the ends of the secondary branches are trimmed and 2 leaves are left.  Secondary branches that grow on internodes with fruit are cut down because they interfere with fruit growth.  Arrangement of the main branch and primary branch so that all the leaves on each branch do not cover each other, so that the distribution of light is evenly distributed, which affects the growth of both the tree/fruit.

 3) Hoarding

 Watermelon planting land is filled with soil so that the roots absorb food optimally and are carried out after a few days of planting.

 4) Fornication

 This is done through sorting and taking young shoots that are not useful because they affect the growth of developing watermelon trees/fruits.  Perempelan is done to reduce plants that are too dense due to many young shoots that are less useful.

 5) Fertilization

 The application of organic fertilizer before planting will not all be absorbed, then follow-up fertilization is carried out according to the growth phase.

 In vegetative growth, foliar fertilizer (Tossil D) is needed, during the fruit formation and ripening phases, Topsis B fertilization is needed to improve the quality of the fruit produced.  The application of foliar fertilizers is mixed with insecticides and fungicides which are sprayed together on a regular basis.

 The spraying is carried out as follows:

 a) Foliar fertilizer is applied at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after planting;

 b) Fruit fertilizer is given at 45 and 55 days after planting;

 c) ZA and NPK (ratio 1:1) carried out 21 days after planting as much as 300 ml, 25 days after planting as much as 400 ml and 55 days after planting as much as 400 ml.


 6) Watering and Watering

 The irrigation system used is the Farrow Irrigation system: water is flowed through channels between the beds, the frequency of water supply in the dry season is 4-6 days with not excessive irrigation volume.  If with a well water pump (diesel water) watering is done with the help of a large enough plastic hose so that it is faster.  Watermelon plants need water continuously and do not lack water.

 7) Pesticide Spraying Time

 In addition to foliar fertilizers, insecticides and fungicides, there are other drugs, namely ZPZ (plant stimulant);  material for leveling and adhesive macro fertilizer (Pm) in liquid form.  ZPT dose: 7.5 cc, Agricultural: 7.5 cc and Metallic (Pm): 10 cc for every 14-17 liters of solvent.  The drug mixture was sprayed after the plants were >20 days old in the field.  Then every 5 days until the age of 70 days.  Spraying is done with a sprayer for areas that are not too large and using a diesel-powered engine if the land area is thousands of hectares.  Spraying is carried out in the morning and evening depending on the needs and weather conditions.

 8) Other Maintenance

 Selection of prospective fruit is an important job to obtain good quality (fruit weight is quite large, located between 1.0-1.5 m from plant roots), prospective fruit close to roots are small because the plant is relatively young (size of an egg).  chicken in good shape and not deformed).  Each plant requires 1-2 fruit candidates, the rest are pruned.  Each fruit candidate ± 2 kg is often turned over in order to avoid bad color due to uneven exposure to sunlight, so the color is less attractive and lowers the selling price of the fruit itself.


 7. PESTS AND DISEASES

 7.1.  Pest

 Watermelon plant pests can be classified into 2 groups: resistant and non-pesticide-resistant pests.

 Pests that are not resistant to pesticides (aphids, mite-like shapes), are generally faded green, live in clusters, are wingless, and easily reproduce.  Symptoms that occur leaf spotting yellow, stunted growth.  Control is carried out non-chemically and chemically with drugs.

 The second pest is a pest that is resistant to pesticides such as: rats, pets (cats, dogs and chickens).  Control: keeping the embankments clean, erecting a fence around the plants, installing a device that produces sounds when the wind blows it and taking a guard rotation.

 1) Thrips

 Small slender in size, pale yellow-black in color, has a segmented antennae.  The mode of transmission is wandering at night, settling and breeding.  Control: spraying insecticide solution until the plants are wet and evenly distributed.

 2) Leaf destroying caterpillar

 Green with black stripes / green with yellow stripes, signs of leaf attack are eaten until the wax layer remains and looks like a hole from afar.  Control: carried out non-chemically and chemically.

 3) Mites

 The small, slightly yellowish/greenish red animal sucks plant sap, defends itself by biting and stinging.  The sign, visible webs of this animal's nest under the leaf surface, the color of the leaves will be pale.  Control: done non-chemically and with pesticides.

 4) Earthworm

 Black mottled/striped, body length 2-5 cm, actively damaging and moving at night.  Attacking leaves, especially young shoots, adult caterpillars prey on the base of the plant.

 Control:

 (1) Simultaneous planting in adjacent areas to break the pest life cycle and eradicate the surrounding moth nests

 (2) chemical control, with drugs in accordance with the rules for planting watermelons.


 5) mealybugs and fruit flies

 The characteristics of having transparent wings are yellow with spots and have a trunk.

 Signs of attack: there are scars on the skin of the fruit (such as a proboscis prick), the flesh of the fruit has a slightly sour smell and looks bruised.  Control: done non-chemically (cleaning the environment, especially on the skin of the fruit, soil former pests reversed by plowing / hoeing).  Chemically: with drugs.


 7.2.  Disease

 1) Fusarium wilt

 Cause: environment/situation that allows mold to grow (air is too humid).  Symptoms: rot occurs in plants that were thick and fertile, gradually will.

 Control:

 (1) non-chemically by alternating the planting period and maintaining environmental conditions, planting in new areas that have not been planted, or planting seeds that have been soaked in medicine;

 (2) chemically, periodic spraying of fungicides is carried out.


 2) Leaf spot

 Cause: wind-borne spores of disease seeds from other affected plants.  Symptoms: the surface of the leaves has yellow spots and then turns brown and eventually dries and dies, or there are fine gray/purple tassels.

 Control:

 (1) non-chemically as in fusarium wilt disease;

 (2) the plants were sprayed with a fungicide consisting of Dithane M 45 at a dose of 1.8-2.4 grams/liter;  Delsene MX 200 at a dose of 2-4 grams/liter, Trimoltix 65 Wp at a dose of 2-3 grams/liter and Daconil 75 Wp at a dose of 1-1.5 grams/liter.


 3) Anthracnose

 Cause: such as Fusarium wilt disease.  Symptoms: the leaves look brown spots that eventually turn reddish color and eventually the leaves die.  When it attacks the fruit, it looks like a pink circle that gradually expands.

 Control:

 (1) carried out non-chemically such as controlling fusarium wilt disease;

 (2) using the fungicide Velimex 80 WP at a dose of 2-2.5 grams/liter of water.


 4) Rotten seedlings

 Attacks the seeds that are being sown.  Symptoms: seedling stems are brown, propagate and fall down and then die.

 Control: the seeds are soaked in Benlate 20 WP at a dose of 1-2 grams/liter of water and Difolathan 44 FF at a dose of 1-2 cc/liter of water.


 5) Rotten fruit

 Cause: pathogenic fungi/bacteria that infect the fruit before it is ripe and are active after the fruit begins to be picked.

 Control: avoid and prevent damage to the skin of the fruit, both during transportation and storage, fruit picking is done during the day when it is not cloudy/rainy.


 6) Leaf rust

 Cause: viruses carried by plant pests that develop on plant leaves.  Symptoms: blistered leaves, mottled, tend to change shape, stunted plants and longitudinal cracks appear on the stems.

 Control: same as fusarium wilt disease.  The right medicine has not been found yet, so plants that are already affected must be so as not to spread to healthy plants.


 7.3.  weed

 In addition to disturbances by pests and diseases, disturbances are also caused by lack/excess of nutrients that affect plant growth and development.  Watermelon trees that lack and excess nutrients suffer from the presence of weeds (plants).


 8. HARVEST

 8.1.  Characteristics and Harvest Age

 Harvest age after 70-100 days after planting.

 Characteristics: after a change in fruit color, and the fruit stems begin to shrink then the fruit can be picked (harvested).  The harvest period is influenced by the weather, and the type of seed (hybrid type / triploid type, as well as the type of seed fruit).

 8.2.  How to Harvest

 In picking the fruit to be harvested, it should be done when the weather is sunny and not cloudy so that the fruit is in a dry condition on the surface of the skin, and lasts while in storage or in the hands of retailers.  It is better if the watermelon is cut along with the stem.

 8.3.  Harvest Period

 Harvesting is done in several periods.  If the fruit can be harvested simultaneously, but if not simultaneously, it can be done 2 times.  First the ripe fruit is picked, the second all the rest are picked all at once.  Third, after the leaves have started to dry because the fruit can no longer grow, the fruit must be picked immediately.

 8.4.  Forecast

 Production The production of each watermelon tree needs to be limited to its fruit yield, so that the amount of production can be estimated.  Naturally, the number of fruit ranges from 2-3 fruit per tree (1 fruit on the branch and 2 fruit on the main trunk of the tree), with a fruit weight of ± 6-8 kg per tree.


 9. Post-harvest

 9.1.  Collection

 Collecting the harvest until it is ready to be marketed, must be endeavored as best as possible so that there is no damage to the fruit, so that it will affect the quality of the fruit and its selling price.  Fruit quality is influenced by the right degree of ripeness, because it will affect the quality of taste, aroma and appearance of fruit flesh, with perfect moisture content.

 9.2.  Sorting and Classification

 This classification usually depends on monitoring and market demand.

 Sorting and classifying watermelons are carried out in several classes, including:

 1) Class A: weight 4 kg, perfect physical condition, not too ripe.

 2) Class B: weight ± 2-4 kg, perfect physical condition, not too ripe.

 3) Class C: weight < 2 kg, perfect physical condition, not too ripe.


 9.3.  Storage

 Watermelon storage at wholesaler level (while waiting for better prices) is carried out as follows:

 1) Storage at low temperature about 4.4 degrees C, and air humidity between 80-85%;

 2) Storage in a controlled atmosphere (a method of regulating O2 levels and CO2 levels assuming oxygen or increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, can reduce the respiration process;

 3) Storage in a room without temperature control: is a short-term storage by giving a base of dry straw 10-15 cm thick arranged in 4-5 layers and each layer is given dry straw.

 9.4.  Packaging and Transportation


 In maintaining the quality of the fruit so that the condition is always good until the final destination, packaging is carried out with the correct and careful packaging process.

 1).Using standard fruit holder for easy transportation.

 2).Protect the fruit during transportation from mechanical damage can be avoided.

 3). Labeled on the container, especially regarding the quality and weight of the fruit.


 9.5.  Other Handling Marketing is one of the important factors, it is necessary to pay attention to the value of prices and marketing channels ranging from producers (farmers) to consumers.

 The faster it is consumed, the higher the selling price.  Marketing is usually done through a wholesale system at a lower price, or through several stages (such as producers, collectors, retailers).


 10. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF PLANT CULTIVATION

 10.1 Cultivation Business Analysis

 Estimated analysis of watermelon cultivation with an area of ​​1 hectare per growing season (4 months) in West Java in 1999

 1) Production cost


 1. Land

 - Rent land 1 ha per planting season Rp.  800,000,- -

 Making beds 50 HKP @ Rp.  7,000,- Rp.  350.000,- -

 Chicken manure 9 tons @ Rp.  75.000,- Rp.  675.000,- -

 Dolomite 500 kg @ Rp.  250 Rp.  125.000,- -

 Plastic mulch 100 kg @ Rp.  7.500,- Rp.  750.000,- -

 Manure and dolomite 11 HKP @ Rp.  7,000,- Rp.  77,000,-


 2. Nursery

 - Watermelon seeds 20 gr 2 packs @ Rp.  20,000,- Rp.  40,000,-

 - Seedless watermelon seeds 200 grams 10 packs Rp.  800,000,-

 - Polybang seedlings 3 kg @ Rp.  10,000,- Rp.  30.000,-

 - 20m transparent plastic @ Rp.  1.500,-,- Rp.  30.000,-

 - 12 HKW nurseries @ Rp.  5.000,- Rp.  60,000,-


 3. Fertilizer needs

 - Urea 210 kg @ Rp. 1.500,- Rp.  315.000,-

 - ZA 520 kg @ Rp.  1.500,-,- Rp.  780,000,-

 - TSP 140 kg @ Rp.  1.800,-,- Rp.  252,000,-

 - KC1 455 kg @ Rp.  1.650,-,- Rp.  750,750,-

 - 60 kg NPK follow-up fertilizer @ Rp 2,400,- Rp.  144,000,-


 4. Planting

 - Spreading fertilizer and plastic mulch 40 HKP @ Rp.  7,000,- Rp.  280,000,-

 - Furadan 10 kg @ Rp.  6.500,- Rp.  65.000,-

 - Moving 23 HKP @ Rp.  7,000,- Rp.  161,500,-


 5. Maintenance

 - Irrigation 14 HKP @ Rp.  7,000 Rp.  98.000,-

 - Measurement of 9 HKP branches @ Rp.  7,000,- Rp.  63,000,-

 - Follow-up fertilization and spraying 33 HKP @ Rp.  7,000 Rp.  231,000,-

 - Pollination of 27 HKP @ Rp.  7,000,- Rp.  189,000,-

 - Selection of 8 HKP fruit @ Rp.  7,000,- Rp.  56.000,-

 - Land reversal of 10 HKP @ Rp.  7,000,- Rp.  70,000,-

 - Pruning 12 HKP branches @ Rp.  7,000,- Rp.  84,000,-


 6. Labor

 - 10 HKP garden guards @ Rp.  7,000,- Rp.  70,000,-


 7. Making hut 1 location @ Rp.  100.000,- Rp.  100,000,-


 8. Harvest and postharvest 22 HKP @ Rp.  7,000,- Rp.  154,000,-

 Total production costs Rp.  7,600,250,-


 2) Income

 1. Seedless watermelon (22,872 kg x Rp.525,-) Rp.  12.007.800,-

 2. Watermelon with seeds (2,977 kg x Rp. 475,-) Rp.  1,414,075,-

 Total income Rp.  13,421,875,-


 3) Profit per hectare (in 1 season) Rp.  5,821,625,- Profit per month Rp.  1,455,406.25


 4) Business feasibility parameters

 1. Income and cost ratio: B/C ratio = 1.76 Based on the feasibility analysis of farming, B/C ratio = 1.76 means that the production costs incurred are 3,699,750, the income will be 1.76 times.


 10.2. Overview of Agribusiness Opportunities

 The conventional watermelon cultivation technique has been understood.  It will be more perfect if the economic value is also known.  It is important to know the level of business feasibility regarding production costs and income per hectare.

 Besides farmers can estimate the desired watermelon planting area, it will also be cultivated according to the capital they have.

 To support the calculation of conventional watermelon farming analysis, there are several things that need to be stated, including:

 a) Watermelon plants are cultivated in monoculture with a spacing of 5.0 m x 0.8 m so that the plant population per hectare reaches 3,500 plants.

 b) Cultivated watermelon varieties are of superior type (F1 hybrid), namely mindful varieties.

 c) At the planting site there is diesel water as a water source if needed.

 d) The workforce is divided into two, namely male workers (HKP) and female workers (HKW), with the cost of male labor being higher than female workers, with working hours/day: 8 hours.

 e) Watermelon cultivation is carried out in the dry season (March-September).  This analysis of costs and income is not fixed, depending on the amount of land rent, worker wages, fluctuations in production prices, and the price of fruit production obtained.


 11. PRODUCTION STANDARD

 11.1.Scope

 In improving the welfare of society in general, especially watermelon farmers, the Government establishes a policy in selecting the order of types of agricultural/horticultural crops.

 Within the following scope, several guidelines have been prepared as follows:

 a) Prioritizing the types of watermelon plants that have high economic value, to increase the income of watermelon farmers, both for domestic and foreign consumption.

 b) Prioritizing the types of plants that can provide more employment opportunities.

 c) Prioritizing the type of watermelon plant that has good market and marketing prospects.

 d) Prioritizing the type of watermelon plant that can enhance the nutritional value of the community.

 

11.2.Description

 Based on the description above, watermelon is one of the main priority plants that need attention among horticultural crops.  Watermelon has a relatively higher price than horticultural crops in general.

 This gives many benefits to farmers or watermelon plant entrepreneurs.  And this allows for an improvement in Indonesia's economic system, especially in the agricultural sector.


 11.3.Classification and Quality Standard

 For the classification of quality standards and product requirements that apply in the market, we must pay attention to the following:

 a) Watermelon produced must be branded, namely by attaching a sticker to the fruit;

 b) The trust that has been given by customers must be maintained;

 c) Market share must be strengthened, and the continuity (sustainability) of watermelon production must be maintained;

 d) Quality watermelons (class M1) must be packaged in such a way as to provide customer satisfaction.


 11.4.Sampling

 In taking samples for handling further production, the age of watermelons is approximately 56–65 DAP, large watermelons have an average weight of 2.5 kg, medium sizes are 1.0–2.5 kg, and small ones weigh about 400  grams.


 11.5.Packaging

 For standard packaging, you can use wooden boxes or you can also use knitted yarns that are similar to nets.  With knitted yarn packaging, it will be more secure than using wooden boxes.